Wednesday, February 24, 2010

Svend Estridsen, ab. 1018-1076

Dansk Biografisk Lexicon
Carl Fr. Bricka
Project Runeberg

Svend Estridsen, o.1018-1076, King, was a son of Jarl
Ulf from the Sprakalegg-family and Estrid, Svend
Tveskjæg's daughter. He was born in England and brought
up there, also after his father became governor in
Denmark.He was partly a hostage of his father's loyalty.
After having served the Swedish king Anund Jacob for
12 years, he went to Denmark and was being appointed
Jarl by Hardeknud(Hardicanute). At Hardeknud's death
in 1042 had Svend - whose attitude and character did
not inspire any respect at that time - had no party
which could help him to gain power. He therefore went
to see king Magnus and was by him appointed Jarl(earl)
in Jutland and swore Magnus fidelity. When a relative
of Svend was murdered by Magnus' brother-in-law,
this woke a suspicion among the Danes against Magnus
and Svend. Svend let himself proclaim king but had
to flee to Sweden.

After Harald Sigurdsson's (Hardrada)homecoming from
the Greek kingdom Svend joined him and they went
on an expedition to Denmark, but without result,
and Harald soon made an alliance with Magnus and
got a share of Norway's kingdom. Both kings
harrassed in Denmark, but Magnus did not like his
ruthless co-regent Harald and began changing his
view on Svend's talents and character. When Magnus
after an unlucky fall with his horse felt death
coming, he inserted Svend as the heir of the
Danish kingdom and thus Svend could unaffected
ascend the Danish throne in 1047.

Harald Hardrada still considered Denmark as a goal
for warfare and predatory expeditions, he never
attempted to conquer the country  though, and
although Svend never retaliated in Norway, Harald
continued his expeditions on the coasts (maybe
with a stop in the time 1050-60).Svend was rarely
successfull in those fights; in a battle at Niså
in 1062 he had a defeat and hardly escaped, but
two years later it ended in peace between the kings.
After Harald Hardrade was killed at Stamfordbridge
and Vilhelm of Normandy had conquered England, Svend
twice sent fleets to England (1069-70 and 1075); he
wanted to take back the country from Vilhelm, but he
achieved nothing.

Alhough Svend never lacked courage, he was successfull in
managing the peaceful conditions of the country. It was
as a founder of a new peaceful Denmark that Svend proved
to be a great king. First of all it was the management of
the church.The division in bishoprics was carried through,
and churches were built in all parts of the country. Svend
governed the Danish church independently without any
trouble from the archbishop Adalbert of Bremen; first of
all he made it his mission to be on friendly terms with
the popes. Svend had married Anund Jacob's widow Gunhild,
but since she was closely related to him, he divorced her
on the pope's demand. After Svend's death pope Gregor VII
said that he had never met a king, who was such a faithful
and kind son of the Roman Holy See as Svend. Like the
church conditions were taken care of so it seems that Svend
was lucky in creating peace inside the country and
a good and lasting management of the kingdom.

Svend was book-learned and very knowledgeable in clerical
matters; supported by an excellent memory he was
skilled in Denmark's history and Adam of Bremen could
build large parts of his church history on his story-
telling. Svend was a tall, handsome, strong-built man,
he followed his sensuality and lived in a very immoral
way, but at the same time he was a very friendly man,
and nothing is heard or told that he among his subjects
had opponents or enemies. The story about the poor
Icelander Audun's stay by him or his friendship with
bishop Vilhelm only confirms what is obvious in all
narratives about him, that he exceptionally knew to
win both rich and poor and obtain their devotion.

Svend died at the king's castle in Søderup in Schleswig
28 April 1076 (the Danish year books have, probably
wrongly, the year 1074)and was buried in Roskilde
Cathedral. Svend Estridsen was married several times.
One of his wives, Gyda was poisoned by his mistress
Thora, another was the mentioned Gunhild; a third was
Thora, a widow after Harald Hardrada and daughter
of the vasal Thorberg Arnesen. Svend had a son with
Gunhild, named Svend, who died young; his other
marriages were childless, but with various women he
had a large flock of children thus Harald, Knud,
Oluf, Erik, and Niels, who all became kings; besides
Bjørn, Knud, also named Magnus, who was sent to Rome
to be inaugurated king, but died abroad,Svend Crusader
and a third son Svend, Thorgils, Sigurd,who was killed
in the Wend, Benedict, Guttorm, Ømund and Ulf, who
was also named Ubbe. From Svend's daughters was
Ingerid married to king Olaf Kyrre, and Gunhild
who was also called Helene, Sigrid, who was married
to the Abodrit-prince Gotskalk , and Ragnhild.

Ræder, Danmark under Svend Estridsen og hans Sønner.
A. D. Jørgensen, Den nord. Kirkes Grundlæggelse
S. 618 ff. 732 ff.
H. Olrik, Konge- og Præstestand I, 168 ff.

Dansk Biografisk Lexicon
Carl Fr. Bricka
Project Runeberg
translation grethe bachmann  ©copyright 

Thursday, February 11, 2010

The Family Panter

Laurids Jonsen, -1340, Drost, belonged to a family who in their coat of arms had a panter; it is a misunderstanding that he is often "made" an Eberstein.

He is mentioned in the later years of Erik Menved, the first time in 1307, when the king endowed his brother Christoffer with Halland. In the year 1315 he was ridder (knight) and attended in Nyborg the agreement with hertug Erik of Jylland; strangely enough he received the same year a fief-letter from markgrev (Markgraf) Valdemar of Brandenborg on his Danish inherited estate Ærø, although Erik Menved at that time wasn't on friendly terms with Valdemar.

In the following period Laurids Jonsen is often mentioned together with the king, and in 1318 he was one of the four Danes who were made arbitrators in the conflicts with Sweden. After Erik Menved's death he might have been eager to elect Christoffer king, for he was made drost at once when Christoffer became king. Laurids Jonsen Panter kept this high position for a couple of years, but must have fallen into disfavour; he lost the drost-job and maybe also his vasalries.

During these conditions he grasped the first opportunity to turn against Christoffer, and when the king after the sønderjyske hertug Erik's death in 1325 demanded guardianship over his son Valdemar, both Laurids Jonsen and the former marsk Ludvig Albertsen Eberstein joined Valdemar and his maternal uncle grev Gerhard (Gert); on 30. March 1326 the little hertug Valdemar promised to help the two Danish magnates to an agreement with Christoffer and gave them as a security the castles Haderslev in Sønderjylland and Tranekær at Langeland.

Laurids Jonsen got Tranekær as his part and it belonged to him from that time. Thus the fight against Christoffer began, which lead to his banishment and the election of Valdemar as Danish king, who again made Laurids Jonsen a drost. It seems that he did not take much part in the government of the kingdom, on the contrary he saw to hold on to his vasalries , Langeland and Ærø, and Skam Herred at Funen, which came to him as a pawn for a considerable sum of money.

His task was not easy - Gert was now hertug/duke of Sønderjylland and Valdemar became hertug of Sønderjylland again after his short period as king - and both Gert and Valdemar wanted to banish the mighty vasal. In 1331 Laurids Jonsen had to seek an agreement with them, the question about Langeland was referred to arbitration, and it seems that he let grev Gert have Ærø for a pawn of 1000 Mark silver. The arbitration did not happen, but in 1339 hertug Valdemar prepared an attack on Langeland, and grev Gert promised him his assistance. Shortly after on 6. April 1340, Laurids Jonsen died and was buried on the island where he for so long had been, in reality, as an independent prince.

He was married twice, his second wife was a German grevinde (countess) Margrethe Gutzkow, with whom he got the county Strey at Rygen.

From Kr. Erslev

Dansk Biografisk Lexicon.

Tranekær and most of the island Langeland belonged to a sønderjydsk hertugslægt (duke-family from Sønderjylland) which was a descendant of king Abel, and during the 1300s it was pawned to the family Panter. (Laurids Jonsen Panter). During Valdemar Atterdag's attempt to gather the kingdom Tranekær was under siege during two rounds, in the second attempt the king succeeded in conquering the castle which then became a royal estate.

Hvedholm (Funen) east of Horne kirke was once a kongsgård (royal manor) and is mentioned the first time in 1231. Valdemar Sejr was in 1223 taken prisoner by a German graf/greve at Lyø, which belonged to Hvedholm. About 1430 the king and drost Laurids Jonsen Panter exchanged Hvedholm and Langeland. In 1475 Mette Panter inherited Hvedholm and Løgismose. Her son's son Eiler Hardenberg was killed in the expedition to Ditmarsken in 1500.

Løgismose, Funen

listed in class A

Fru Grethe Henriksdatter of Løgismose had to think about her dear departed husbands soul, and since it were the black friars in Odense, who administered the save and the duration of the Purgatory - then Jens Pedersen Panter's fate on the other side was a question of money. Already in 1419, two years after hr. Jens' death the black friars had got a piece of land for their soul masses, but this was not enough. Jens Pedersen Panter had to have an "eternal mass". And his wife Grethe had to get it for him. Grethe Henriksdatter's fight for a generation to keep her estate together, pay her bills and secure her late husbond his salvation is known from economic documents of debt- and pawn-letters, deeds etc. The fight was often hard. Fru Grethe was pressed by seculars and clerics. But she managed it all. "All those I have paid ", she wrote on a bundle of mortgages. In 1441 the eternal mass was established for Jens Pedersen Panter in the black friars' church. The friars demanded 150 mark and five farms of Løgismose as a pawn "because we don't have cash money". But fru Grethe also paid this pawn before she joined her husband.

Per Eilstrup, Kay Nielsen og Holger Rasmussen'Vore gamle herregårde'.

Johanne Andersdatter, –1479, the famous Fru Johanne of Asdal. She was said to be a member of the state council and had an entourage of 24 men. The slægtsbøgerne (family-books) sometimes give her a wrong name Sappi, but she belonged to the mighty family of the 1400s, who was named Panter after their coat of arms; her parents were Anders Nielsen of Asdal and Ide Lydersdatter (Holck). All her brothers died when they were children, and she became the sole heir and had many suitors of whom one hr. Bonde Due of Torp,( a son of rigshofmester hr. Jens Due), according to a folksong bribed her chauffeur, kidnapped her, raped her and married her against her family's will. After his death ab. 1430 she married hr. Niels Eriksen Banner of Vinstrup with whom she became the ancestral mother of the whole later family Banner. She became a widow for the second time in 1447 and her long widowhood, her large family (four children from the first and 14 from the second marriage) and her riches and probably also prominent personal qualities brought her in great esteem among her peers. It is not a historical fact that she was a rigsråd, but she was according to a document from 1462 where she is mentioned before the bishop of Børglum, a høvedsmand (chief) in Vendsyssel. The last member of her famous family Panter she died in 1479 and was buried in Dueholm Kloster, which she had given much estate.
Dansk Biografisk Lexicon

Forfædrelinie V, 19. g.
Johanne Andersdatter Panter of Asdal, born ab. 1395, died in 1476, inherited large riches after her 6 brothers who died infant; she was the last of the family Panter. When the family opposed to her marriage to Bonde Jensen Due of Torp, he kidnapped her, when she went to dress a bride. Bonde Due died ab. 1420, whereafter she in 1422 married hr. Niels Eriksen Banner, who was a bailiff in Nørreherred at Mors; he was the son of hr. Erik Thomsen Banner of Vinstrup at Zealand, a son of Thomas Nielsen Banner.

The family Banner descends according to Saxe from Timme Sjællandsfar who in a fight in England in Knud den Store's period gathered the Danes around a banner with a green beech-branch upon a spear. - Hr. Niels Eriksen Banner became rigsråd and høvedsmand at Skivehus and Aalborghus. When he died in 1447, fru Johanne became høvedsmand at Aalborghus and in Vendsyssel, had an entourage of 24 men, and signed the tribute to Christian I. She was called "an amazingly wise and learned woman". There is a portrait painting of her at Gavnø (Adelsårbogen 1892).

In her old age she lived in her own house at Dueholm Kloster at Mors and was buried with her second husband in the Klosterkirke where still in the 1800s was a pretty stone over her. Both the church and the stone have disappeared, but fru Johannes' posterity is numerous as the sand of the sea (Norsk tidsskrift for Genealogi, 3. bd). In her first marriage she had 4 children, in her second 14.

The line from the daughter Anna Banner, m. to Peder Skram (forfædrelinie I, 6g.) Her daughter of second marriage Karen Nielsdatter Banner, m. to hr. Oluf Olufsen Lunge of Odden (forfædrelinie V 20.g.) Source: Slægtsbog for Sejer Olesen Leth og Ida Nielsdatter, v. P.Filtenborg

Asdal voldsted

Asdal sogn, Vennebjerg herred, Hjørring amt. (shortly).

The first known owner of Asdal is Niels Ovesen from the noble family the genealogists according to their shield-mark name Panter. Niel Ovesen owned much property in this this part of the country; besides Asdal he had Skovsgård and Kærsgård in Vennebjerg herred and Knivholt in Horns herred. He was a rich and respected man, he used riddernavn (was a knight) and had his two children married to the Zealand noble family Lunge, which at that time was a prime family.

His daughter Ingeborg Nielsdatter Panter, who was a widow, married ab. 1390 the later rigsråd and hofmester Anders Jacobsen Lunge; his son Anders Nielsen Panter wrote himself of Asdal in 1393 and married Regitze Jacobsdatter Lunge; she soon died, he must be dead 1405 or 1406, but had before that he had married Ide Lydersdatter Holck, who owned Asdal in 1406 and since got married again to hr. Lyder Kabel of Fuglsang, who in 1415 wrote himself of Asdal.

Anders Nielsen Panter and fru Regitze left only one child, a daughter named Johanne. (all their sons died when children) Johanne Andersdatter Panter, who died in 1477 as the last member of the Panter-family, inherited great riches, and in the nobility's family books is told about her that she was a member of rigsrådet. This is a legend, but in 1462-63 she was a royal vasal in Vendsyssel. It was said that her family rejected Bonde Due's proposal to her, but he abducted her. They were married and he gained part of her riches.

When in 1419 there was administration of the estate after old Niels Ovesen Panter, Bonde Due was present on behalf of his wife fru Johanne, and Anders Jacobsen Lunge on behalf of his wife Ingeborg as heirs. Both parts inherited a part of Asdal, but after fru Johanne before 1422 was married again, this time to Niels Eriksen Banner, the manor came into the ownership of the Banner-family and stayed there for the next 200 years as one of the headquarters of the family.
(shortly from Danske slotte og herregårde, bd. 10)

Knivholt at Frederikshavn is an old farm which in the late 1300s belonged to her. Niels Ovesen Panter of Asdal and Skovsgård (Vennebjerg herred) and his wife Johanne Andersdatter Stenbrikke (they were Johanne Andersdatter's paternal grandparents. She was probably named after her paternal grandmother). Their son Anders Nielsen Panter of Asdal (+ latest 1406) marrid to Regitze Jacobsdatter Lunge (+ 1405-06) probably inherited Knivholt. In an exchange the farm went to his brother-in-law, rigshofmester hr. Anders Jepsen (or Jacobsen) Lunge of Gunderslevholm (+ latest 1429), who had been married to Ingeborg Nielsdatter Panter ( + earliest 1411). The farm was after this divided among several heirs.

Clausholm slot, Østjylland
The family Panter had in a blue shield a panter, which was chess-patterned in silver and red. In the 1300s the family Panter was in opposition to Valdemar Atterdag. It is known that the king in 1359 conquered Clausholm in East Jutland.

The history about Gårdbogård (at Skagen) goes back to 1335, where it was owned by ridder Henrik Nielsen of the family named Panter after their coat of arms. Henrik Nielsen Panter was one of the most prominent noblemen at that time; he served Erik Menved and Christoffer II, and when grev Gert in 1326 was endowed with Sønderjylland, he participated in sealing the fief-letter. After the king-less time he is mentioned among Valdemar Atterdag's men. In 1345 he is mentioned for the last time and then Gårdbogård was no longer in his possession, since he had exchanged property in Gårdbo to Vrejlev Kloster.

Knivholt at Frederikshavn is an old farm/manor, which in the end of the 1300s belonged to hr. Niels Ovesen Panter of Asdal and Skovgård (Vennebjerg herred) and his wife Johanne Andersdatter Stenbrikke. (They were the grandparents of Johanne Andersdatter Panter. She was probably named after her paternal grandmother). Their son Anders Nielsen Panter of Asdal (+ latest 1406) , who was married to Regitze Jacobsdatter Lunge (+ 1405-06), probably inherited Knivholt. In exchange the farm came to his brother-in-law, rigshofmester hr. Anders Jepsen (or Jacobsen) Lunge of Gunderslevholm (+latest 1429), who had been married to Ingeborg Nielsdatter Panter (+ earliest 1411). The farm was after this shared among several heirs.

Vilsted Castle (Himmerland, near Vitskøl Kloster and Løgstør). In the present Vilsted village's western outskirts was in the early Middle Ages a fortified manor, Vilsted Castle, which belonged to the Panter-family. The manor was in 1407 bought by Margrethe I, who - as a part of her systematic abolition of the fortified castles of the nobility - let it demolish. The castle bank was surrounded by Vilsted sø. Earlier foundation stones and driven-in poles were visible. Today the plan is nothing but grassgrown rises in the meadow.

Krogstrup sogn, Horns herred, Frederiksborg amt.
Ridder Niels Knudsen Manderup wrote himself of Manderup 1346. He belonged to an ancient family, named after the village Manderup in Skibby parish, where must have been a now disappeared main farm. At his death in 1365 Niels Manderup left no sons, and Svanholm went via his daughter Elisabeth's marriage to her husband the væbner Anders Pedersen of the Jutland family Panter, who in 1374-1408 is mentioned as owner of the farm, of which he writes himself from 1383. Neither his or his son the væbner Knud Andersen Panters' work on and with the farm is known. Knud Andersen Panter must be dead in 1445 and replaced by his son Niels Knudsen Panter, who became a knight, but it seems that his economy did not match his social position. Neither he or his brother Bo left any sons, and the sister Kathrine Knudsdatter Panter, who was married to Mikkel Rud of Vedby, inherited a third of the farm, the rest went to relatives.
(short from Danske slotte og herregårde, bd. 1)

photo/translation : grethe bachmann ©copyright