Sunday, March 21, 2010

Niels, - 1134 - ~ Margrethe Fredkulla


Niels, -1134, King of Denmark, the longest living and
the last ruler of Svend Estridsen's illegitimate sons.
He is mentioned for the first time, when he after Knud
den Hellige's kill (1086) was sent to Flandern as a
hostage, so the magnates could pay Oluf Hunger free
and make him king; Niels was close to this brother and
agreed in the reaction against Knud's supremacy. When
the message about Erik Ejegod's death arrived in
Denmark, Niels succeeded in being elected king (1104);
some of his older brothers had died, Svend and Ubbe
Kongsemne (= pretender).

Even the Roskilde Chronicle, which else is friendly to
Niels,regards him not qualified as king. He was ordinary,
but without overview and without royal appearance, and
he was controlled by small-mindedness and greediness and
brought disasters to the country. Misplaced thrift and
greediness made him restrict his entourage and cut off
maintaining discipline and order, so the security from
Erik Ejegod's time was replaced by common insecurity;
among other things he submitted to Harald Kesja's
robberies. His own men did not respect their king, the
chief Christiern Svendsen broke crudely Vederlagsretten,
( =judicial payments),and when king Niels was careless
enough to be content just giving fines,worse ruptures
soon happened among the king's men.

Niels was greedy for estate and did not give his sister's
son, the Wendic prince Henrik his maternal inheritance,
and Henrik started a feud, which brought distress and
misery on Denmark. It would have been much worse if Niels
had not such a strong personality by his side, his wife
Margrethe Fredkulla, whom he married shortly after his
accession to the throne.

A large expedition which Niels made to Ljutka in Holstein
ended - caused by the Jarl Elev's treason - into a defeat,
and not until Knud Lavard became hertug in Sønderjylland
(1115) Denmark achieved peace from its southern neighbour.
But from now on the chivalrus hero Knud Lavard threw his
paternal uncle into the shade. There were enough contrasts
between them. While Knud was the standard bearer of the
advanced European culture,Niels was narrow-minded and held
on to inherited common practice. This was obvious on the
clerical grounds.

Although Niels was friendly with the clergy and especially
gave Roskilde domkirke and Odense kloster privileges,the
pope demanded him to protect the church from assaults and
to reject Niels' un-ecclesiastical demands that Danish
priests were allowed to get married.(1117). On the other
hand king Niels could not prevent the persecution of
married priests at Sjælland (1123) and altogether he
preferred to be an onlooker of events.Sigurd Jorsalfarer
promised him support on a crusade to Småland, but he went
back on his words and the Norwegian king ravaged furiously
one of his farms.

Knud Lavard's growing power and fame caught the jealous
eye of king Niels. He saw that his own son Magnus, whom
he assisted to be king in Sweden, could not compare with
his cousin, who once would be his rival to the throne.
But he dared not act vigorously towards Knud, although
Knud did not show his uncle the necessary consideration.
Niels set on to Knud by Henrik Skadelaar's initiative and
by queen Ulvhild, whom he had married after Margrethe's
death; he complained about Knud at the Thing, but he had
to give up to Knuds frank and proud reply. Niels now
resorted to schemes; without participating in the
conspiracy against Knud, he promoted the schemes and
wheedled out Knud's ring, because it according to his
belief contained a talisman which made its owner

After Magnus had murdered Knud, Niels felt threatened by
the crews at the Thing of Sjælland and had to send his
own son in exile. (1131) But soon after he called him
back, and now Erik Emune raised a rebellion. During the
civil war, where Niels especially had support from Jutland
he won the better of it and he had Erik Emune driven out,
but had to on the other side recognize the German king
Lothars supremacy. Erik however had now the power in Skåne,
and Niels and Magnus, who was now his father's co-king,
gathered a large army in order to win a crucial victory
over Erik, but the battle at Fodevig (4. June 1134)was
a terribly defeat for them, Magnus was killed, and the old
king escaped and took flight through the country in order
to come to king Lothar; he came to Schleswig.

He was afraid of going into Knud Lavard's city and his men
warned him against the "Edslaget", the guild, where Knud
had been Master of the Guild, but since he had taken in
some hostages, his weak nature changed from fear into
arrogance. "Should we be afraid of tailors and shoemakers?"
he supposedly said, and he rode into the city. The citizens
really wanted to revenge Knud Lavard, they locked the city
gates, rang the guild-bell and gathered together. Niels
wanted to flee to the king's castle, but was killed with
his entourage (25 June 1134). His lack of character caused
his downfall.

Contrary to the other sons of Svend Estridsen Niels grew
old and was therefore named "den Gamle" (the Old).He had
two sons with Margrethe: Inge who as child was kicked to
death by a horse and Magnus. Besides he had a daughter by
a mistress, Ingerid, who married Jarlen(the earl) Ubbe.

Ræder, Danmark und. Svend Estridsen og hans Sønner.
A. D. Jørgensen, Den nord. Kirkes Grundlæggelse.
H. Olrik, Knud Lavard.
Samme, Konge og Præstestand I.                                           

translated from Hans Olrik's Danish text: grethe bachmann.

Dansk Biografisk Lexicon
Carl Fr. Bricka
Project Runeberg

Margrethe Fredkulla, --1117(?), Queen, was a daughter
of the Swedish king Inge Stenkilsen and was very young
married to the Norwegian king Magnus Barfod, and a
Danish peace agreement was thereby confirmed (1101).
Therefore Margrethe got her byname Fredkulla. She
brought as a dowry to Magnus the landscapes west of
Gøtaelven (river in Sweden) - the feud between the
two kings had been about this land. Her  first
marriage was short. During a poaching at the coast of
Ireland Magnus was killed (1102.

Margrethe was not fond of her new living place,and
her marriage was childless, which meant that Norway
missed the countries which were her dowry.The
Norwegians mistrusted her, it was even said, that
she by her leave from Norway had stolen Holy Olaf's
reliquaries. Shortly after Niels ascended the
Danish throne (1104) she became his queen, they had
the sons Magnus and Inge , the last mentioned died
when he was a child, kicked to death by a horse.

Margrethe asserted herself in Denmark as a strong
personality. She had once been a pawn of peace, and
she tried to keep peace in the Danish royal house,
especially by making marriage connections between her
relatives and the Danish royal descendants. Most of
all she let Knud Lavard marry her sister's daughter
Ingeborg, and Henrik Skadelaar marry her brother's
daughter Ingerid, and each of those two brides she
gave a fourth of her Swedish estates as a dowry.

Margrethe Fredkulla's politics did not secure peace,
but it was said that there could be no fight as long
as she lived. Outwardly she also seems to have
contributed to protect Denmark, the tradition assigns
the eastern part of Danevirke to a queen M.,and it
could hardly be anyone else but her. She was very
generous to the church, she embroidered chasubles and
altar cloths and she gave Lund's cathedral a very
valuable gold chalice. Margrethe Fredkulla left
herself a fine reputation. She died on 4.November
from dropsy. The year of death is in a yearbook
written as 1117 - but according to the connection of
events it should be later.

H. Olrik, Knud Lavard.
A. D. Jørgensen, Bidrag til Nordens Hist. i Middelald. S. 7 ff.
(Norsk) Hist. Tidsskr. 3. R. I, 272 f.
H. Olrik, Konge og Præstestand I.

Dansk Biografisk Lexicon
Carl Fr. Bricka
Project Runeberg
translation grethe bachmann  ©copyright 

Erik 1. Ejegod, - 1103 -, ~ Bodil Thrugotsdatter

Erik 1. Ejegod 

Erik Ejegod, --1103, king, was an illegitimate son of Svend Estridsen.
His date of birth is unknown, but he was born in Slangerup,Sjælland
(Zealand), where he later let build a church. Erik joined closely his
brother Knud den Hellige (the Holy), by whom he was appointed Jarl
in Sjælland; he was very alike Knud as for courage and frankness,
but he also had sober-mindedness and an ability to mediate and
make himself popular, which Knud was lacking in. Erik fought bravely
by Knud's side in St. Albani church 10 July 1086.

After Oluf had been elected king, Erik went to Sweden, where he
gained such good reputation that he - 9 years after king Oluf died 18
August 1195 - was called home and elected king after he had sworn to
be faithful to Harald Hen's laws. He took up the fight against the
heathens, also on the Continent where he conquered Oldenburg in
Vagrien. He also fought for an ecclesiastical liberation. The emperor
-friendly archbishop Liemar of Bremen had opposed to Erik, who now
joined Pope Urban II,the king now wanted to make an attempt in
liberating the church of the North from the supremacy of Bremen, and
at the same time he hoped to have his murdered brother adopted as
a church saint.

In autumn 1098 he went to Italy and met pope Urban in Bari in Apulia,
where was held a synod, but his questions were not finally decided. On
the journey Erik took care of the Nordic pilgrims by establishing a
guesthouse in Piacenza and taking similar care of the travellers in
Lucca; he brought reliquaries of the holy Nicolaus home to his church
in Slangerup. Finally the pope's blessing for his brother Knud's
canonization came, at a great party on Good Friday (19. April) the
costy reliquary with Knud den Hellige's bones could be placed upon the
altar of the newbuilt Skt. Knud's Kirke in Odense. Some estate was
given to the church and the connected kloster, to which monks came
from the kloster Evesham in England.

In the summer of the same year there was a meeting at Gøtaelven (a
river in Sweden) between Erik and the kings: Inge of Sweden and king
Magnus Barfod of Norway. Magnus had plundered in Halland, and he was
still fighting with king Inge. Erik mediated between the kings and tried
without doubt to prepare the way for the idea about a Primat for the
Nordic church in Lund.This case was not decided in Rome until after
Erik Ejegod's death.

In fury Erik had killed some hirdmen;a musician had according to Saxe
brought him into rage with his enchanted music. He wanted to go to the
Holy Land "to heal his soul", the Icelandic Skald says. When Erik told
what he wanted to do, the people asked him appealingly to give up this,
they would offer rich presents to pay him from his promise. But Erik
dared not break his oath,he appointed a viceregent staff, who were his
eldest son Harald Kesja and bishop Asser of Lund, and then went together
with his wife Bodil in the year 1102 across Gardarike to Constantinople,
where emperor Alexius showed him much honour. Erik was the first of
the European kings, who went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, but he did
not succeed. In Baffa at Cypern he caught a fever and died 10.July 1103.
After having buried her husband, Bodil continued the journey to Jerusalem,
but died outside the city on the Mount of Olives.

Erik Ejegod was a handsome man, taller and stronger than most men; his
sonorous voice could be heard by everyone in assemblies,he was a popular
speaker, and he sent greetings to everyone who weren't there even wives,
children and slaves. He had a brilliant memory and knew several foreign
languages. He was a skilled ruler, he punished criminals in a hard way, but
however he got the byname "egoth" (always good), and he left as an
important inheritance to his son Knud Lavard and his grandson Valdemar a
shining memory about a loved and clever king.

In his marriage to Bodil he only had the son Knud (Lavard). But he had many
mistresses,(where his queen showed to be very tolerant), and with these
he had the sons Harald Kesja, Benedict, Erik Emune and a daughter Ragnhild.

Ræder, Danmark under Svend Estridsen og hans Sønner.
A. D. Jørgensen, Den nord. Kirkes Grundlæggelse.

Dansk Biografisk Lexicon
Carl Fr. Bricka
Project Runeberg

Bodil Thrugotsdatter

Bodil, --1103, queen. She was a daughter of the
Jarl Thrugot Fagerskind. According to Saxos
narrative she was already married to Erik Ejegod
in the beginning of Oluf Hunger's rule, since
she followed him in exile to Sweden. Their only
child was as far as it is known the later hertug
Knud Lavard. Saxo praises her duty and her
character, especially her tolerance of her
husbands' excesses. She followed him on his
journey to the Holy Land, and she came there
after his death, but died there in 1103.
Knytlingasagas tales about her are considered

H. Olrik, Knud Lavard S. 25 ff.

Translated from J. Kinch's Danish text: grethe bachmann.

Dansk Biografisk Lexicon
Carl Fr. Bricka
Project Runeberg
translation grethe bachmann  ©copyright 

Oluf Hunger, - 1095 -, ~ Ingegerd Haraldsdatter

Dansk Biografisk Lexicon
Carl Fr. Bricka
Project Runeberg

Oluf Hunger, -1095, king, was an illegitimate son
of Svend Estridsen and was probably jarl under his
brother Knud den Hellige. He was however in
opposition to his brother; when Knud had gathered
a mighty fleet for an expedition to England, but was
delayed at the southern border of Denmark, the ship
crews got angry and sent via Oluf a message to Knud
to ask him to come or appoint another leader of the
fleet.Oluf did his job eloquently, but Knud got
furious and let via his brother Erik (Ejegod) Oluf
put in irons; he dared not keep him imprisoned in
Denmark and sent him to his father-in-law, count
Robert Friser in Flandern (1085).

The popular rising against Knud meant that Oluf
became king; he had suffered from Knud's capricious
ways, so he was an obvious leader of the reaction
against his supremacy; furthermore was Oluf the
eldest living of the Svend's sons at that time.In
order to free his brother Niels went to Flandern
as a hostage - and then Oluf came home and was
elected king, while Erik took flight to Sweden.
(1086) Knud's laws were abandoned , the influence
of the royal power and the clerical power were
limited, and the magnates were proud again.The
connection to the Gregorian church party was
probably also given up and they joined the emporial
opposite pope Wibert; it is later said that a
"Wibertine" raged in Denmark and this can hardly
refer to anything else than the time of Oluf. It
was understandable that they opposed to the hated
Knud's efforts, but it was however unfortunate that
they turned their back to the European cultural
development. Bishop Svend of Roskilde portended the
punishment from Heaven and went on a pilgrimage.

And it happened that a several years long famine
harrassed the western Europe, it came to Denmark
and was especially vicious here.In these conditions
the public life was paralysed, the Wends harrased
in the Danish waters, and when Skjalm Hvide's
brother Aute was a victim of the Wendic expeditions,
Skjalm had to revenge his brother's kill himself
while king oluf was inefective. The national
disasters damaged the king and gave him the sad
byname Hunger (Famine). The Roskilde Chronicle,
which author was an adherent of the magnates'
power and an opponent of the strong royal power,
said that Oluf had deserved a better fate, he had
been out in some very difficult conditions. The
dissatisfaction in the country initiated a new
political reversal; still in Oluf's lifetime Knud
den Hellige's bones were shrined (April 1095), and
when Oluf died shortly after (18. August 1095), Erik
Ejegod became king and took up Knud's work.

Oluf was married to Ingegerd, a daughter of the
Norwegian king Harald Hardrada.

Ræder, Danmark und. Svend Estridsen og hans Sønner.
A. D. Jørgensen, Den nord. Kirkes Grundlæggelse.
H. Olrik, Konge og Præstestand I.

Dansk Biografisk Lexicon
Carl Fr. Bricka
Project Runeberg
translation grethe bachmann  ©copyright 

Knud 4. den Hellige, ab. 1040-1086 ~ Edel of Flandern

Knud 4. den hellige, o.1040-1086, King of Denmark,
was the second eldest and most outstanding of Svend
Estridsen's (illegitimate )sons. His sparkling eyes
revealed an enthusiastic and passionate character,
and he early showed to be a keen warrior. Svend
Estridsen therefore sent him on two expeditions to
England, hoping that he would drive out William the
Conqueror. On the first expedition (1069-70) Knud
shared the leadership with his brother Harald and
his paternal uncle Asbjørn Jarl;for a time they were
successful, but later they got into trouble; Asbjørn
took bribes from the English king, and the fleet had
to go back, which probably made Knud furious. On the
second England-expedition, where Jarl Hakon Iversen
took part, Knud ravaged York in 1075, but achieved
nothing. He won fame in his battles to the east against
the Sembers and the Estonians; the Scald Kalv Maanesen
praised him as victor over 10 kings.

After Svend Estridsen's death (1076)Knud could not
control his lust for power, and at the king-election at
Isøre he ruthlessly tried to force his older brother
Harald from his right to the throne, but the people chose
unanimously the mild Harald (Hen), and the proud Knud
had to - like Ælnoth says - go away from his brother's
anger. He spent his exile-years in Sweden. A contemporary
papal letter blamed the Norwegian king Olaf Kyrre that
he supported Harald Hen's rebellious brothers and in
spite of the legend about Knud as a saint it is tempting
to imagine him among these brothers.

At the death of Harald Hen (1080) Knud achieved the
supremacy in Denmark, and his short rule became one of
the strangest periods in the Danish history. He was bold
and violent, he was over-ambitious and he pursued an aim,
but he was also ruthless when he wanted to keep things in
order in the country. The power of the magnates was
clipped and their violations of the law were punished
harshly. But also the common man had to bend under the
authoritative monarchy. Knud acquired a power of
legislation, and although his endeavours partly were
humane and in harmony with the culture of advanced
countries, it could not mitigate the indignation of the
Danes, who saw their inherited rights being offended.
His enthusiasm for the church displeased also the people,
who then was forced to obey the clergymen's demands.
Knud's work in this area is however a kind of grandiose.
He gave the priesthood a higher position in society
and attempted to sort it out from the laymen, and he
ordered the church festivals and the Lents stricly
respected. For his part the proud king followed the
precepts of the church, took care of widows and orphants,
fast strictly and let himself be flogged by his curates
- his piety also showed his passionate character.

Most of all he was generous to the churches, especially
in Roskilde, Dalby, Odense and Viborg and Lund's bishop
church, since he with a large gift (1085) established a
charter  with a school; possibly he wanted like his
father to make Lund into a Nordic archbishopric, but
this goal was not achieved in his lifetime. His eagerness
and enthusiasm for the church was also a means to
strengthen the monarchy, the growing authority of the
priesthood forced them to support the king who increased
their power, and thus Knud also worked for his own cause.

Knud's ambitions kept his old war fever alive.In a great
England-expedition he wanted to drive out William the
Conqueror and wipe out the memory of the former bad luck
of the Danes. In the spring 1085 a great fleet gathered
in "Vestervigen" in the western part of Limfjorden in
order to go from there to England; Knud's brother-in-law
Olaf Kyrre sent Norwegian ships for assistance and Knud
expected to get support from the militantly count Robert
Friser of Flandern, whose daughter Edel Knud had married.
But Knud hesitated in Schleswig in order to keep an eye
on the German emperor Henrik IV, whose rival-king he had
given shelter recently. During the perpetually wait the
army's supply almost had come to an end, and the
expedition would now happen so late that it was
impossible to come home in time for harvesting.  After
an army Thing the king's brother Oluf (Hunger) was sent
down to him in order to ask him to begin the expedition
or send home the army,but Knud treated Oluf as a traitor
and sent him in chains to Flandern. Soon after he had
to conform to the army's wish and for harvesting reasons
send the army back home. When Knud saw his proud
conquering-plans destroyed, he wanted to use his utmost
power inside the border of the country, he became more
and more hard and ruthless to his subjects than before.
He probably knew that his bailiffs tormented both rich
and poor people with lawsuits and when they collected
fines it was said that they took three times as much
as before. And now people's patience was exhausted.

Knud went on a visit to Vendsyssel and put up at the
king's estate Børglum, but the "Vendelboer" rebelled
against him, and his attempts to address them was in
vain. Knud took flight south to bishop Henrik's farm
Biskopstorp (Bejstrup), while most of his men went to
the king's estate Aggersborg at Limfjorden. Now the
rebellion spread quickly and the king's estates were
ravaged, bishop Henrik rode to meet the flocks to
mediate, but was met with rage, and when he rode back
to tell the king, Knud took flight across Limfjorden
and then to the city Viborg. The "Vendelboer" surprised
and ravaged Aggersborg and persued Knud. The revolt
spread to all Jutland, and from Schleswig the king had
to flee to Funen. But also here was revolt. The chief
of the rebellion was Piper, who treacherously came to
Odense castle and first made Knud feel secure and then
hasten a surprise attack on the king.

In the last minute Knud succeeded in with his brother
Benedict and his men to get into the Albani-church.(in
Odense). Knud offered in vain reconciliation.The rebels
tried to set the wooden church on fire, and when they
failed, a terrible fight began at the church door. Many
attackers were killed, among others Piper died from his
wounds, but also the king and his men were wounded and
had to go back. Kneeling in front of the altar Knud
confessed and prepared for death, but the enemy threw
spears and stones through the small church windows and
Knud was seriously wounded. His brother had already
been killed and his 17 men were slain, he himself was
dying, when the enemies forced their way into the
church and killed him in a raw beating-up.(10 July 1086).

The posterity has justified Knud's endeavours, since a
later co-operation between a strong monarchy and a strong
priesthood gave Denmark power and success. But there is
no defense when it comes to the means Knud used - and his
downfall was caused by his own unjust measures. The
priesthood's awe for his memory and more the disasters
of the following period opened way for another reflection;
they began to consider him a saint. His bones were taken
from his grave already in 1095, and an Odense-priest wrote
"Kong Knuds Lidelseshistorie"(King Knud's tale of his
suffferings); but not until the pope had canonized Knud,
the final shelving of his reliquaries was done with a
large celebration (1101), and twenty years later the monk
Ælnoth drew up his strange biography of the Martyr-king.
The skeleton in Knud's shrine is a witness of his tall
and strong body, but at the same time a witness about the
rough treatment he suffered at his death.

He was married to Edel(Adele) of Flandern and they had the
daughters Ingerid and Cæcilia and the son Carl, who became
count of Flandern and had a fate similar to his father's.

Script, rer. Dan. III.
Danske Helgeners Levned, ved H. Olrik.
A. D. Jørgensen, Den nord. Kirkes Grundlæggelse.
H. Olrik, Konge og Præstestand i den danske Middelalder I.
Hist. Tidsskr. 6. R. IV.

Dansk Biografisk Lexicon
Carl Fr. Bricka
Project Runeberg

Edel/Adela of Flandern

Edel (Adela), --1115, queen, was a daughter of count
Robert of Flandern,(called the "Friser"/"Frison")
and Gertrude. Edel was married ab. 1082 to Knud den
Hellige and had with him 3 children. After her
husband was killed in Albani church in Odense
10. July 1086, she stealed at night into the church
to bring his body to Flandern, but she already saw
the first miracles at the grave and gave up her
intention. She then fled with her son Carl (the
Dane) to her father in Flandern, while her husband's
faithfull brother Erik probably took her two
daughters with him to Sweden; they were married in
Sweden, Cæcilia to the Jarl from Gotland, Jarl
Erik, and Ingerd to Folke who was the ancestor of
the Folkunger.

Edel stayed in Flandern for 5 years, where she won
praise for her piety and charity. Escorted by her
brother Robert (2.le Croisé)she went in 1092
through France to Apulia in order to marry duke
Roger (1. Bursa). Roger had inherited Apulia from
his father Robert Guiscard in 1085; the brilliant
exploits which his relatives - i.e. his brother
the crusader Boemund and his paternal uncle Roger,
the conqueror of Sicily - carried out, put him and
his duchy aside; according to the legends Sigurd
Jorsalfarer called Roger king on his visit in 1110.
At his death he left Apulia to his and Edel's son,
(Guillaume).2 earlier born sons, Ludvig and Guiscard
had died as infants.

Edel did not forget her first husband while she
lived so far away from Denmark, and when Knud was
declared a saint, she sent valuable gifts to
decorate his shrine. She died in April 1115.

Translated from Johannes C. H. R. Steenstrup's
Danish text: grethe bachmann.

Dansk Biografisk Lexicon
Carl Fr. Bricka
Project Runeberg
translation grethe bachmann  ©copyright 

Wednesday, March 17, 2010

Harald III Hen, - 1080 -

Harald Hen (Hein), --1080, King of Denmark. Harald was
an illegitimate son of Svend Estridsen and took part
together with his brother Knud and his father-in-law
Jarl Asbjørn in the expedition to England 1069.After
Svend's death he was elected king at Isøre Thing, after
he had promised the people certain laws. The election
caused unrests and some of his brothers went displeased
to Olaf Kyrre in Norway. The byname Hen, meaning a soft
whetstone often smeared with oil (carried in the belt)
was given to him caused by his somewhat dull and
uncommunicative ,yet good-natured disposition, which
easly accepted that others advised him. Those who
counselled him must however have been clever men, which
is seen in his popular laws - they were later ordered
confirmed by the Danish kings at their election.There
were other better conditions in the country, like the
better system and the coinage.

Harald died 17 april 1080 and was buried in Dalby church
in Skåne - a headstone which the tradition assigned
to Harald, is from a much later period.
Note gb: He was married to Margrethe, a daughter of Asbjørn
Jarl. She was his cousin. Asbjørn was his paternal uncle.
Harald died childless.

Ræder, Svend Estridsen og hans Sønner S. 273 f.
A. D. Jørgensen, Den nord. Kirkes Grundlæggelse S. 746 f.
Olrik, Konge og Præstestand I, 205 f.

Dansk Biografisk Lexicon
Carl Fr. Bricka
Project Runeberg
translation grethe bachmann  ©copyright